Grace Church (Episcopal) - New York City

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Grace Church
(Episcopal)

802 Broadway at 10th Street
New York, N.Y. 10003
http://www.gracechurchnyc.org

Organ Specifications: 802 Broadway at 10th Street (since 1846):
IV/87 Taylor & Boody Organbuilders, Op. 65 (2013)
III/88 Schlicker Organ Company (1961) – Double Organ
IV/48 Skinner Organ Company, Op. 707 (1928) – Gallery
IV/84 Ernest M. Skinner Company, Op. 201 (1912) – Chancel
IV/89 Ernest M. Skinner & Co. (1902) – Gallery + two consoles
III/54 Hilborne L. Roosevelt, Op. 36 (1876) – Chancel
III/30 Henry Erben (1830) – Gallery
Broadway south of Rector Street (1806-1846):
III/30 Henry Erben (1830) – moved to new church (1846)
• John Geib & Son (1811)

See also the Chamber Organ and the Chantry.
           
Original Grace Episcopal Church on Broadway and Rector Street - New York City  
Grace Church (1808-1846)
 
Grace Church, a Protestant Episcopal society, was founded in 1805. Its first church was built from 1806-08 and was located on Broadway, south of Rector Street. The original church was built of brick and was "of irregular and nondescript architecture, forming a parallelogram 101 feet long by 57 feet wide." Trinity Church was its very close neighbor, and it was the Corporation of Trinity Church that furnished the money to build Grace Church. After the new church was completed, the vestry sold all of the pews and offered the proceeds to the Corporation of Trinity Church, but the corporation declined the offer. The money from pew sales was then invested in real estate to provide a fund that would help maintain the church.

By 1843, the church had outgrown its current housings, and it was decided to built a larger church further north to keep up with the expanding city. The land for the present church was purchased from Henry Brevoort, Jr. The Rev. Thomas House Taylor, rector at the time, selected James Renwick, Jr., who was then 24, to be the architect behind the construction. Renwick later designed St. Patrick’s Cathedral on Fifth Avenue, but the work of his youth is widely considered his finest design. It was probably Taylor, who had spent time in Europe looking at the churches there, who influenced the decision to build the church in the Gothic style, this taking place before the Gothic Revival and before any such structure had been built in New York.

  1910 Postcard of Grace Episcopal Church on Broadway and Rector Street - New York City
 
1910 Postcard of Grace Church
The building was completed in 1846, and consecrated on March 7th of the same year; however, it was much simpler than it is today. The steeple was built of plain wood to save expense, and the scandalous rumor in the congregation in 1844 was that Renwick failed to make the building strong enough to bear the weight of a stone spire. The Episcopal clergy put the rumor to rest by acknowledging from the pulpit that it was lack of money, not lack of structural strength, that necessitated the wooden spire. (After twenty years, the wooden spire was replaced with the marble one that towers over Broadway today.) The lack of money also resulted in plaster and lath being used in the Gothic interior instead of carved stone. “It was a scandal at the time because plaster and lath was not really Gothic,” said Anne Rieselbach, a church member who leads monthly tours of the landmarked building. To the casual eye, the interior looks like carved stone except where water from the leaky roof has dissolved the plaster. None of the artworks and few of the memorials were there, as well as the elaborate stained glass windows. It was through the action of independent people that the church grew into its own.

Philanthropist Catharine Lorillard Wolfe is responsible for many of the additions to the church. In 1879, she had the Chantry, a small chapel next to the church, constructed to house the choir and Sunday school. She later gave funds for the construction of the parish house that connected the church to the rectory. Her most notable donation was the beautiful East Window. Until this point, the window was simply lightly tinted glass. This donation propelled many of the parishioners to follow her example and almost all of the stained-glass windows were donated in this fashion.

Several more buildings, most of which border Fourth Avenue, were added in the years to come. Some of them house the Grace Church School, which enrolls 370 students. The garden, which runs along East Tenth Street, was also a donation.

With the celebration of the building's 150th birthday in 1996, the Municipal Art Society added the church to its list of seven New York Landmarks that are of "national importance." The restoration of the church was begun in 1995 and is costing nearly three million dollars. The focus of the restoration is the crumbling marble exterior and the protection and restoration of the stained glass windows.
           
  Taylor & Boody organ, Op. 65 (2013) in Grace Church - New York City (photo: Robbie Lawson)
   
  Taylor & Boody organ, Op. 65 (2013) in Grace Church - New York City (photo: Robbie Lawson)
Taylor & Boody Organbuilders, Inc.
Staunton, Va. – Opus 65 (2013)
Mechanical key action
Electric solenoid stop action
4 manuals, 76 stops, 87 ranks



In 2008, Grace Church signed a contract for a new organ to be built by Taylor & Boody of Staunton, Virginia. All of the manual divisions are contained within the chancel area, close to the liturgical and musical focal point. Two classical cases face each other across the chancel with the detached and reversed console placed between the two.

The Great organ is built upon the Double Diapason 16’, rich, full and sonorous. Beneath the Great is the Choir organ with the traditional stops of a Baroque positive that will provide a foil to the Great, plus several accompanimental stops that are contained in a small swell box.

Across the chancel is the Swell with a Diapason in façade, contrasting with another darker but more fundamental Diapason inside the Swell box. Built upon this foundation is a full Swell containing choirs of principals, flutes, strings and reeds, powerful with the box open and dramatic when enclosed.

The Solo division is enclosed in the top of the "Roosevelt" chamber located in the angle formed by the east wall of the south transept and the chancel wall. The wind pressure is higher than the rest of the organ to bring out the orchestral character of the stops. To enhance the octave development, the Solo wind chest has 68-note channels to provide pipes when the division is coupled at 4'. Because of the demands of the high wind pressure and multiple couplers on the key action, this division is assisted by a pneumatic “machine” that will preserve the tracker action characteristics and not burden the other three divisions when coupled.

Particular attention was given to the pedal division starting with the inclusion of the original E.M. Skinner 32’ Open Wood bass pipes, located in the west gallery, which have never left Grace Church. Upon this noble bass is built a chorus of principals. There are reeds from 32’ to 4’ as well as open flutes and a Violonbass. This prominent and sonorous pedal, located in the open chamber designed by Roosevelt, is augmented with a second pedal division located in the chancel, to provide a more intimate bass for choir accompaniment and continuo.
 
The winding of the organ is nineteenth century in style with large wooden wind canals and parallel-rise multiple fold reservoirs of large capacity, giving the organ a capacious and responsive wind.

The Bicentennial Organ (although incomplete) was inaugurated on Friday evening, 26 April 2013 in a concert by the combined choirs of Grace Church, directed by guest conductor Barry Rose, with Dr. Patrick Allen, Organist and Master of Choristers. On Saturday afternoon, 21 September 2013, the completed organ was heard in "The Exhibition of the Bicentennial Organ" by organists Dr. David Hurd (The General Theological Seminary), William K. Trafka (St. Bartholomew's Church), Raymond Nagem (The Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine), Dr. Jennifer Pascual (St. Patrick's Cathedral), Renée Anne Louprette (L'Église de Notre Dame), and Dr. John Scott (St. Thomas Church).
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes (Upper South Case, 85mm / 3¼" w.p.)
16
  Double Diapason
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
16
  Bourdon (wood)
61
1 3/5
  Seventeenth
61
8
  First Open Diapason
61
  Cornet V ranks [g-d3, mounted]
160
8
  Second Open Diapason
61
  Mixture V ranks
305
8
  Spire Flute
61

  Scharf IV ranks
244
4
  Principal
61
16
  Double Trumpet
61
4
  Spitz Flute
61
8
  Trumpet
61
2 2/3
  Twelfth
61
4
  Clarion
61

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed (Upper North Case, 85mm / 3¼" w.p.)
16
  Contra Gamba
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
8
  Façade Principal
61
2
  Wald Flute
61
8
  Violin Diapason
61
1 3/5
  Tierce
61
8
  Rohr Flute
61
  Mixture V ranks
305
8
  Salicional
61
16
  Contra Bassoon
61
8
  Voix Celeste [TG]
54
8
  Cornopean
61
4
  Principal
61
8
  Oboe
61
4
  Open Flute
61
4
  Clarion
61
2 2/3
  Nasard
61
  Tremulant

     

     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes (Lower South Case, 75mm / 3" w.p.)
8
  Principal Dolce (façade, wood)
61
 
Sesquialtera II ranks
preparation
8
  Stopped Diapason (wood)
61
 
Scharff III-IV ranks
preparation
8
  Flauto Dolce
61
16
  Cor Anglais
61
8
  Unda Maris [TC]
49
8
  Cremona
61
4
 
Octave
preparation

  Tremulant
4
  Rohr Flute
61
8
  Tuba
SO
2
  Gemshorn
61
8
  Harmonic Trumpet
SO
1 1/3
 
Larigot
preparation
   

     

     
Solo Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed (Roosevelt Chamber, 125mm / 5" w.p.)
8
  Harmonic Flute
68
8
  Orchestral Oboe
68
8
  Gamba
68
8
  Vox Humana
68
8
  Gamba Celeste [TC]
56
  Tremulant
8
  Viol d'Orchestre
68
8
  Tuba (15" w.p.)
68
8
  Viol Celeste [TC]
56
8
  Harmonic Trumpet (15" w.p.)
68
4
  Flauto Traverso (wood)
68
  Solo 16'
16
  Corno di Bassetto
68
  Solo 4'

     

     
Main Pedal Organ – 32 notes (Roosevelt Chamber, 100mm / 4" w.p.)
32
*
Double Open Diap. (wood)
12
32
  Contra Ophicleide (wood)
12
32
**
Contra Bourdon (wood)
5
32
  Contra Fagott
12
16
  Open Diapason (wood)
32
16
  Trombone
32
16
  Subbass
32
16
  Fagott
32
16
  Violone
32
8
  Trumpet
32
8
  Principal
32
4
  Clarion
32
8
  Spire Flute
32
8
  Tuba
SO
4
  Fifteenth
32
8
  Harmonic Trumpet
SO
    Mixture V ranks
160
 
* 1-12 Skinner in west gallery
       
** 1-7 resulant
Chancel Pedal Organ – 32 notes (Lower North Case, 75mm / 3" w.p.)
16
  Bourdon
32
4
 
Clarabella
preparation
8
  Cello (wood, façade)
32
16
  Bassoon
32
8
  Spitz Gedackt
32
8
  Schalmey
32

     

     
Couplers
    Great to Pedal 8'       Choir to Great 8'  
    Swell to Pedal 8'       Solo to Great 16', 8', 4'  
    Choir to Pedal 8'       Solo to Swell 16', 8', 4'  
    Solo to Pedal 8', 4'       Swell to Choir 8'  
    Swell to Great 8'       Solo to Choir 16', 8', 4'  
               
Adjustable Combinations
   
Great Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb)
Swell Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb)
Choir Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb)
Solo Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb)
Pedal Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb & toe)
General Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16 (thumb & toe)
  Set (thumb)
  General Cancel (thumb)
               
Reversibles
    Swell to Great (thumb & toe)   Tutti III (thumb & toe, with indicator)
    Choir to Great (thumb)   Tutti IV (thumb & toe, with indicator)
    Solo to Great (thumb & toe)   32' Dbl. Open Diapason (toe)
    Solo to Swell (thumb)   32' Bourdon (toe)
    Swell to Choir (thumb)   32' Ophicleide (toe)
    Solo to Choir (thumb)   32' Fagotto (toe)
    Tutti I (thumb & toe, with indicator)   16' Trombone (toe)
    Tutti II (thumb & toe, with indicator)    
               
Controls
    Pedal Stops on Great Divisionals   Memory Level Display
    Pedal Stops on Swell Divisionals   General Piston Display
    Pedal Stops on Choir Divisionals   Sequencer Forward (4 thumb, 1 toe)
    Swell Stops on Pedal Toe Studs   Sequencer Back (2 thumb, 1 toe)
    All Swells   All Next
    Memory Level Up (toe & jamb)   Scope
    Memory Level Down (toe & jamb)   Signal Lights on Buttons (4)
               
Expression
    Balanced Swell Pedal      
    Balanced Solo Pedal      
           
  Gallery Case of Schlicker Organ (1961) in Grace Episcopal Church - New York City (Grace Church)
Schlicker Organ Company
Buffalo, N.Y. (1961)
Electro-pneumatic key and stop action
24 stops, 27 ranks – Chancel
50 stops, 61 ranks – Gallery
Total: 74 stops, 88 ranks
Two 3-manual rocker tab consoles



In 1961, it was decided to replace the Skinner instrument with an entirely new organ built along classical lines. Herman L. Schlicker, president of the Schlicker Organ Company of Buffalo, New York, was commissioned to design and build the organ, in consultation with Frank Cedric Smith, organist and choirmaster. Schlicker installed the bulk of the organ behind a case in the west gallery, and the smaller chancel organ was placed in the existing chamber at the south transept. The organ was controlled by two identical three-manual consoles, one in the gallery and the other in the chancel. Unnicked pipework was featured throughout, and slider chests were utilized in the gallery organ. Schlicker retained the Skinner 32' Open Wood (renamed Principal) in the gallery, but greatly reduced its wind pressure. The total cost for the organ was approximately $135,000.
               
CHANCEL ORGAN
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
16
  Quintadena [unit]
73
4
  Rohrflöte
61
8
  Principal
61
2
  Principal
61
8
  Quintadena
1 1/3
  Quint
61
4
  Octave
61

  Mixture III-IV ranks
232

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Gedeckt
61
2
  Waldflöte
61
8
  Viole de Gambe
61
 
  Mixture III ranks
176
8
  Viol Celeste
61
8
  Trompette
61
4
  Gemshorn
61

  Tremulant  

     

     
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
16
  Principal
32
4
  Dulzian
32
16
  Subbass [unit]
44
2
  Octave
16
  Quintadena
GT
 
  Rauschpfeife III ranks
96
8
  Octave [unit]
44
16
  Fagott
32
8
  Gedeckt

     
               
GALLERY ORGAN
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
16
  Principal
61
2
  Schwegel 
61
8
  Octave
61
    Mixture V-VII ranks
380
8
  Gemshorn
61
8
  Trumpet
61
8
  Holzflöte
61
16
  Trompeta Real [TC]
4
  Octave
61
8
  Trompeta Real [unit]
73
4
  Hohlflöte
61
4
  Trompeta Real
2 2/3
  Quint
61

     

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Principal
61

  Sesquialtera II ranks
110
8
  Rohrflöte
61
    Mixture IV-V ranks
292
8
  Salicional
61
16
  Fagott
61
8
  Voix Celeste [FF]
56
8
  Schalmei
61
4
  Octave
61
4
  Clarion
61
4
  Koppelflöte
61

  Tremolo  
2
  Nachthorn
61

     

     

     
Positiv Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes
8
  Gedeckt
61
1
  Sifflöte
61
4
  Principal
61
    Scharf III-IV ranks
225
4
  Rohrflöte
61
 
  Cymbel III ranks
183
2
  Octave
61
8
  Krummhorn
61
1 1/3
  Klein-Nasat
61

  Tremolo  

     

     
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
32
  Principal [unit]
44
2
  Blockflöte
16
  Octave
    Hintersatz V ranks
160
16
  Contrabass
32
32
  Contra-Bombarde [unit]
68
16
  Gedecktbass [unit]
68
16
  Bombarde
8
  Octave
32
16
  Fagott
SW
8
  Gedeckt
8
  Trumpet
4
  Choralbass
32
4
  Clarion
4
  Gedeckt
2
  Cornet
32
               
Couplers
    Great to Pedal 8'   Swell to Swell 16', 4'
    Swell to Pedal 8'    
    Positiv to Pedal 8'   Chancel Swell on Positiv
    Swell to Great 16', 8', 4'   Chancel Great on Positiv
    Positiv to Great 16', 8', 4'   Chancel Organ on/off
    Swell to Positiv 8', 4'   Nave Organ on/off
               
Adjustable Combinations
   
Chancel Great Pistons 1-2-3 (thumb)
Chancel Swell Pistons 1-2-3 (thumb)
Chancel Pedal Pistons 1-2-3 (thumb)
Gallery Great Pistons 1-2-3-4-5 (thumb)
Gallery Swell Pistons 1-2-3-4-5 (thumb)
Gallery Positiv Pistons 1-2-3-4 (thumb)
Gallery Pedal Pistons 1-2-3-4 (toe)
General Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6 (thumb)
General Pistons 7-8-9-10-11-12 (toe)
  General Cancel (thumb & toe)
               
Reversibles
    Swell to Pedal (thumb & toe)    
    Great to Pedal (thumb & toe    
    Positiv to Pedal (thumb & toe)    
               
Expression
    Balanced Pedal – Gallery Swell      
    Balanced Pedal – Chancel Swell      
    Crescendo Pedal (Gallery console controls only Gallery stops; Chancel console only Chancel stops)
               
Chancel pipes of Schlicker Organ (1961) in Grace Episcopal Church - New York City (John Rust)
 
Chancel pipes of Schlicker Organ (1961) in Grace Episcopal Church - New York City (John Rust)
 
 
 
Chancel pipes of Schlicker Organ (1961) in Grace Episcopal Church - New York City (John Rust)
 
Chancel pipes of Schlicker Organ (1961) in Grace Episcopal Church - New York City (John Rust)
           
  Ernest Mitchell at the Chancel Console of Skinner Organ, Op. 707 (1928) in Grace Church - New York City (Grace Church Archives)
  Ernest Mitchell at the 1928 Console
Nave (Gallery) Organ:

Skinner Organ Company
Boston, Mass. – Opus 707 (1928)
Electro-pneumatic key and stop action
4 manual drawknob console – Chancel (new)
60 stops, 48 ranks – Nave (new)
107 stops, 85 ranks – Chancel (Op. 201, 1912)
Total of 167 stops, 133 ranks




In 1928, Skinner rebuilt and enlarged the 1902 gallery organ, moving the Renwick-designed organ screen forward to the gallery rail so that additional ranks and mechanisms could be accomodated. Skinner also made both organs playable from a new drawknob console in the chancel; the enormous but compact four-manual console had 167 stops, double coupler rails, five expression shoes and two crescendo pedals. Chancel stops, couplers and controls were engraved in black, while the Nave stops, couplers and controls were engraved in red.

When the new Schlicker organ was installed in 1961, the Skinner organ was purchased by Mr. James Barnett of Albany, Ga., a student of Ernest Mitchell (who was Organist and Choirmaster of Grace Church from 1922 until 1960). The Skinner Gallery organ and some ranks of the Chancel organ were installed in Covenant Presbyterian Church, Albany, Ga., and six ranks were used as an Echo division built in 1993 by Mark Stewart for the First United Methodist Church of Swainsboro, Ga. Upon Mr. Barnett's death, the Skinner console was gifted to Grace Church. David Bottom of Lexington, Ky., facilitated return of the console with Douglass Hunt of New York City, who refurbished it for exhibit. This console is currently on display in the music office and may be viewed or studied by making an appointment with the Organist and Master of Choristers.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
    Chancel Division – Op. 201 (1912)
Nave Division – Op. 707 (1928)
16
  Diapason
61
16
  Diapason
61
16
  Bourdon [ext. PED]
17
16
  Bourdon [ext. PED]
17
8
  First Diapason
61
8
  First Diapason
61
8
  Second Diapason
61
8
  Second Diapason
61
8
  Third Diapason
61
8
  Harmonic Flute
61
8
  Double Flute
61
4
  Octave
61
8
  Philomela
PED
4
  Flute
61
8
  Waldflote
61
2 2/3
  Twelfth
61
8
  Gedeckt
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
8
  Dulciana
61
  Mixture V ranks
305
8
  Erzahler
61
16
  Ophicleide *
61
4
  Octave
61
8
  Tromba *
61
4
  Flute
61
4
  Clarion *
61
2 2/3
  Twelfth
61
 
  Chimes
SO
2
  Fifteenth
61

* enclosed in Choir
    Harmonics V ranks
305
       
    Mixture V ranks
305
       
16
  Trumpet [unit]
85
       
8
  Trumpet [ext.]
       
4
  Clarion [ext.]
       
               
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
    Chancel Division – Op. 201 (1912) Nave Division – Op. 707 (1928)
16
  Bourdon
73
8
Diapason
73
16
  Dulciana
73
8
Geigen
73
8
  First Diapason
73
8
Gedeckt
73
8
  Second Diapason
73
4
Octave
73
8
  Clarabella
73
4
Flute Triangulaire
73
8
  Salicional
73
2
Fifteenth
61
8
  Voix Celeste
73
Mixture V ranks
305
8
  Gedeckt
73
16
Waldhorn
73
8
  Spitzflote
73
8
Cornopean
73
8
  Flute Celeste
73
8
Flugel Horn
73
8
  Aeoline
73
8
Vox Humana
73
8
  Unda Maris
73
4
Clarion
73
4
  Octave
73
  Tremolo
4
  Flute
73
       
4
  Violin
73
       
4
  Violin Celeste
73
       
2
  Flautino
61
       
    Dolce Cornet III ranks
183
       
    Mixture III ranks
183
       
16
  Posaune [unit]
97
       
16
  English Horn
73
       
8
  Posaune [ext.]
       
8
  French Trumpet
73
       
8
  Flugel Horn
73
       
8
  Oboe
73
       
8
  Vox Humana
73
       
4
  Clarion [ext.]
       
    Tremolo          
    (Three spare knobs)          

     

     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
    Chancel Division – Op. 201 (1912) Nave Division – Op. 707 (1928)
16
  Gamba
73
16
Dulciana
73
8
  Diapason
73
8
Diapason
73
8
  Geigen Principal
73
8
Melodia
73
8
  Gamba
73
8
Gemshorn
73
8
  Gamba Celeste
73
4
Flute
73
8
  Concert Flute
73
2
Piccolo
61
8
  Quintadena
73
8
English Horn
73
8
  Dulcet II ranks
146
 
Tremolo
4
  Flute
73
 
Harp
61 bars
Celesta
2
  Piccolo
61
 
16
  Fagotto
73
       
8
  Clarinet
73
       
8
  Orchestral Oboe
73
       
8
  Vox Humana
73
       
    Tremolo          
    Harp          
    Celesta          

     

     
Solo Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed
    Chancel Division – Op. 201 (1912) Nave Division – Op. 707 (1928)
8
  Philomela
GT
8
  Flauto Mirabilis
73
8
  Orchestral Flute
73
4
Flute
73
4
  Flute
73
8
Tuba Mirabilis
73
8
  Gamba
73
8
Tuba
73
8
  Gamba Celeste
73
8
French Horn
73
16
  Trombone
73
4
Clarion
73
16
  Fagotto
CH
Tremolo
8
  Tuba Mirabilis
73
Chimes
25 tubes
8
  Tuba
73
   
8
  French Horn
73
       
8
  Orchestral Oboe
CH
       
8
  Clarinet
73
       
4
  Clarion
73
       
    Tremolo          
               
Echo Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes (in ceiling)
8
  Quintadena
61
       
8
  Vox Humana
61
       
    Tremolo          
               
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
    Chancel Division – Op. 201 (1912)     Nave Division – Op. 707 (1928)
32
  Bourdon [unit]
54
32
Diapason [unit]
68
32
  Gamba [unit]
66
16
First Diapason [ext.]
16
  First Diapason [unit]
54
16
Second Diapason
GT
16
  Second Diapason [unit]
42
16
Bourdon [unit]
56
16
  Third Diapason
GT
16
Dulciana
CH
16
  Bourdon [ext.]
10 2/3
Quint [ext.]
16
  Soft Bourdon
SW
8
First Octave
16
  Gamba [ext.]
8
Second Octave
GT
16
  Soft Gamba
CH
8
Gedeckt [ext.]
16
  Dulciana
SW
8
Dulciana
CH
8
  First Octave [ext.]
4
Super Octave [ext.]
8
  Second Octave [ext.]
4
Flute [ext.]
8
  Third Octave
GT
32
Bombarde [unit]
68
8
  Gedeckt [ext.]
16
Trombone [ext.]
8
  Soft Gedeckt
SW
16
Second Trombone
GT
8
  Gamba [ext.]
16
Waldhorn
SW
8
  Cello
CH
10 2/3
Quint Trombone
GT
4
  Super Octave [ext.]
8
Trumpet [ext.]
4
  Flute [ext.]
8
Second Trumpet
GT
32
  Bombarde [unit]
66
8
Waldhorn
SW
16
  Trombone [ext.]
4
Clarion [ext.]
16
  Second Trombone
SO
4
Second Clarion
GT
16
  Posaune
SW
Chimes
SO
16
  Fagotto
CH
       
16
  English Horn
SW
       
10 2/3
  Quint Trombone
SO
       
8
  Trumpet [ext.]
       
8
  Second Trumpet
SO
       
8
  Horn
SW
       
4
  Clarion [ext.]
       
4
  Second Clarion
SO
       
               
Couplers (two rows of rocking tablets above top keyboard)
    Chancel Couplers (bottom row)   Nave Couplers (top row)
    Swell to Pedal Tenor   Swell to Pedal Tenor
    Solo to Pedal Tenor   Solo to Pedal Tenor
    Great to Pedal   Great to Pedal
    Swell to Pedal   Swell to Pedal
    Choir to Pedal   Choir to Pedal
    Solo to Pedal   Solo to Pedal
    Swell to Pedal 4'   Swell to Pedal 4'
    Choir to Pedal 4'   Choir to Pedal 4'
    Solo to Pedal 4'   Solo to Pedal 4'
    Swell to Great   Swell to Great
    Choir to Great   Choir to Great
    Swell to Choir   Swell to Choir
    Great to Choir   Great to Choir
    Solo to Great   Solo to Great
    Solo to Swell   Solo to Swell
    Solo to Choir   Solo to Choir
         
    CHANCEL   BOTH
    NAVE  
         
    Great to Solo   Great to Solo
    Swell to Solo   Swell to Solo
    Choir to Solo   Choir to Solo
    Swell to Great 16'   Swell to Great 16'
    Swell to Great 4'   Swell to Great 4'
    Choir to Great 16'   Choir to Great 16'
    Choir to Great 4'   Choir to Great 4'
    Swell to Choir 16'   Swell to Choir 16'
    Swell to Choir 4'   Swell to Choir 4'
    Solo to Great 16'   Solo to Great 16'
    Solo to Great 4'   Solo to Great 4'
    Swell 16'   Swell 16'
    Swell 4'   Swell 4'
    Choir 16'   Choir 16'
    Choir 4'   Choir 4'
    Solo 16'   Solo 16'
    Solo 4'   Solo 4'
    Tuba Mirabilis to Great   Tuba Mirabilis to Great
         
Pistons
    Chancel (left side)   Nave (right side)
    General 1-2-3-4-5   General 1-2-3-4-5
    Solo 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8   Solo 1-2-3-4-5-6
    Swell 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8   Swell 1-2-3-4-5-6-7
    Great 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8   Great 1-2-3-4-5-6-7
    Choir 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8   Choir 1-2-3-4-5-6
    Pedal 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9   Pedal 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8
    Coupler 1-2-3-4   Coupler 1-2-3-4
    Solo to Pedal Reversible   Solo to Pedal Reversible
    Swell to Pedal Reversible   Swell to Pedal Reversible
    Great to Pedal Reversible   Great to Pedal Reversible
    Choir to Pedal Reversible   Choir to Pedal Reversible
               
Toe Studs
Chancel (left side)
 
Nave (right side)
Gamba 32, Bomb 32, Full 1-2-3-4, Solo/Gt
(top)
Solo/Gt, Full 1-2-3-4, Diap 32, Bomb 32
Sw 4, Sw 8, Gen 1-2-3-4-5, Solo/Ped
(middle)
Solo/Ped, Gen 1-2-3-4-5, Sw 4, Sw 7
Pedal 1-2-3-4-5-[*]-7-8-9, Gt/Ped
(bottom)
Gt/Ped, Pedal 1-2-3-4-5-[*]-7-8
   
* Pedal 6 toe studs were omitted
               
Indicator Lights
    Chancel Full 1-2-3-4 (left side)   Nave Full 1-2-3-4 (right side)
               
Selectors
    CANCEL NAVE BOTH CHANCEL – buttons in left Solo key cheek to select Solo organs
    CANCEL NAVE BOTH CHANCEL – buttons in left Swell key cheek to select Swell organs
    CANCEL NAVE BOTH CHANCEL – buttons in left Great key cheek to select Great organs
    CANCEL NAVE BOTH CHANCEL – buttons in left Choir key cheek to select Choir organs
    CANCEL NAVE BOTH CHANCEL – buttons in right Choir key cheek to select Pedal organs
    Great to Pedal Combinations – black button in right Great key cheek
    Chancel and Nave Manual 16' on/off – buttons in right Swell key cheek
    CHANCEL NAVE BOTH – toe studs at far right of pedalboard
               
Swell and Crescendo Pedals (left to right)
    1. Chancel Choir   5. Nave Solo
    2. Chancel Swell   6. Chancel Crescendo
    3. Nave Choir & Chancel Swell   7. Nave Crescendo
    4. Nave Swell    
               
    Above the crescendo pedals are two toe studs: regular crescendo & orchestral crescendo.

Under the Choir manual is a drawer that contains the mechanism for setting the order of the Nave Crescendo Pedal. Designed in a circle, the entire stoplist of the Nave organ is engraved with a wire for each stop. Firing positions are determined by placing the end of the wire-tip in the appropriate hole.

Under the music desk, at the right side of the console, is a selector to assign each of the enclosed divisions to any of the five swell shoes.
               
Left stop jamb on console of Skinner Organ, Op. 707 (1928) in Grace Episcopal Church, New York City (Steven E. Lawson)
 
Console of Skinner Organ, Op. 707 (1928) in Grace Episcopal Church, New York City (Steven E. Lawson)
 
Right stop jamb on console of Skinner Organ, Op. 707 (1928) in Grace Episcopal Church, New York City (Steven E. Lawson)
         
    Console of Skinner Organ, Op. 707 (1928) in Grace Episcopal Church, New York City (Steven E. Lawson)    
           
  Chancel Console of Ernest M. Skinner Organ, Op. 201 (1912) in Grace Church - New York City (Grace Church Archives)
Chancel Organ:

Ernest M. Skinner Company
Dorchester, Mass. – Opus 201 (1912)
Electro-pneumatic key and stop action
4 manuals, 107 stops, 84 ranks



Chancel Organ Case (c.1933) at Grace Episcopal Church - New York City  
In 1912, the Ernest M. Skinner Company was contracted to build a new chancel organ. Skinner provided a new combination action, and a new movable four-manual "bat-wing" style drawknob console.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
16
  Diapason
61
8
  Erzahler
61
16
  Bourdon [ext. Pedal]
17
4
  Octave
61
8
  First Diapason
61
4
  Flute
61
8
  Second Diapason
61
2 2/3
  Twelfth
61
8
  Third Diapason
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
8
  Double Flute
61
    Harmonics V ranks
305
8
  Philomela
PED
    Mixture V ranks
305
8
  Waldflote
61
16
  Trumpet [unit]
85
8
  Gedeckt
61
8
  Trumpet
8
  Dulciana
61
4
  Clarion

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon
73
4
  Violin
73
16
  Dulciana
73
4
  Violin Celeste
73
8
  First Diapason
73
2
  Flautino
61
8
  Second Diapason
73
 
  Dolce Cornet III ranks
183
8
  Clarabella
73
    Mixture III ranks
183
8
  Salicional
73
16
  Posaune [unit]
97
8
  Voix Celeste
73
16
  English Horn
73
8
  Gedeckt
73
8
  Posaune
8
  Spitzflote
73
8
  French Trumpet
73
8
  Flute Celeste
73
8
  Flugel Horn
73
8
  Aeoline
73
8
  Oboe
73
8
  Unda Maris
73
8
  Vox Humana
73
4
  Octave
73
4
  Clarion
4
  Flute
73
    Tremolo  
            (Three spare knobs)  

     

     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Gamba
73
2
  Piccolo
61
8
  Diapason
73
16
  Fagotto
73
8
  Geigen Principal
73
8
  Clarinet
73
8
  Gamba
73
8
  Orchestral Oboe
73
8
  Gamba Celeste
73
8
  Vox Humana
73
8
  Concert Flute
73
    Tremolo  
8
  Quintadena
73
    Harp  
8
  Dulcet II ranks
146
    Celesta  
4
  Flute
73
       
               
Solo Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Philomela
GT
8
  Tuba Mirabilis
73
8
  Gamba
73
8
  Tuba
73
8
  Gamba Celeste
73
8
  French Horn
73
8
  Orchestral Flute
73
8
  Clarinet
CH
4
  Orchestral Flute
73
8
  Orchestral Oboe
CH
16
  Trombone
73
4
  Clarion
73
16
  Fagotto
CH
    Tremolo  
               
Echo Organ – 61 notes (in ceiling)
8
  Quintadena
61
       
8
  Vox Humana
61
       
    Tremolo          
               
Pedal Organ – 30 notes
32
  Gamba [unit]
54
8
  Cello
CH
32
  Bourdon [unit]
66
4
  Super Octave
16
  First Diapason [unit]
54
4
  Flute
16
  Second Diapason [unit]
42
32
  Bombarde [unit]
66
16
  Third Diapason
GT
16
  Trombone
16
  Bourdon
16
  Second Trombone
SO
16
  Soft Bourdon
SW
16
  Posaune
SW
16
  Gamba
16
  English Horn
SW
16
  Soft Gamba
CH
16
  Fagotto
CH
16
  Dulciana
SW
10 2/3
  Quint Trombone
SO
8
  First Octave
8
  Trumpet
8
  Second Octave
8
  Second Trumpet
SO
8
  Third Octave
GT
8
  Horn
SW
8
  Gedeckt
4
  Clarion
8
  Soft Gedeckt
SW
4
  Second Clarion
SO
8
  Gamba
       
           
  Gallery Organ Case (c.1933) at Grace Episcopal Church - New York City
Ernest M. Skinner & Co.
South Boston, Mass. (1902)
Electro-pneumatic key and stop action
4 manuals, 73 registers, 80 stops, 89 ranks




By the 1900s, the chancel and gallery organs had become a source of trouble due to the outdated electrical system and mechanism installed in 1876 by Hilborne L. Roosevelt.

Early in 1902, during the long tenure of James Morris Helfenstein as organist and choirmaster, it was decided to thoroughly rebuild both the chancel and gallery organs, the electrical system, and at the same time add several new stops and a Solo organ in the gallery. The first of several contracts was entrusted to the young and almost unknown Ernest M. Skinner of Boston, under the supervision of Mr. Helfenstein.

One such Memorandum of an Agreement, dated April 1, 1902, was for the addition of a new gallery Solo division comprised of four stops (8' Stentorphone, 8' Grosse Floete, 4' Flute, 8' Tuba) that would have a separate bellows and motor. The Tuba was "to be voiced on a 20 to 30 inch wind pressure on the Willis system," and the Solo was "to be placed in Gallery Swell box which is to be new with a double set of shades and much enlarged." The church agreed to a consideration of $2,150 for this work.

Console of Ernest M. Skinner Organ (1902) in Grace Church - New York City (Grace Church Archives)  
1902 Ernest M. Skinner & Co. Console  
As the work proceeded a member of the congregation offered to provide funds for placing all new pipes in the gallery organ; the resulting instrument was only the second from the Skinner factory, then located in South Boston. Skinner tonally altered the Chancel Great of the 1876 Roosevelt organ, and provided a movable four-manual "bat-wing" style console in the chancel with 125 feet of free cable. There was also a three-manual console in the gallery that had swell pedals and twelve adjustable combination pedals. Work was completed by September 1903.

In the Grace Church Archives is an undated article (possibly from the newsletter) titled, "Grace Church's School," that states: "During the past year Mr. George S. Bowdoin has added to the memorial organ in the gallery a 'thirty-two-foot pedal' and 'Vox Humana,' and there are in course of construction for it an 'English horn,' and 'orchestral oboe,' and a five-octave set of 'cathedral chimes.'" It seems likely that these additions were for Skinner's Op. 152-C (1909), Op. 153 (1907), and Op. 161 (1909). Pipecounts for the Gallery Divisions were not given, but are suggested below.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
    Chancel Division       Gallery Division  
16
  Diapason
61
16
  Diapason
61
8
  FIrst Diapason
61
8
  Diapason
61
8
  Second Diapason
61
8
  Flute
61
8
  Third Diapason
61
8
  Gemshorn
61
8
  Melodia
61
4
  Flute
61
8
  Flute
61
4
  Octave
61
4
  Octave
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
4
  Flute
61
8
  Trumpet
61
2 2/3
  Twelfth
61
4
  Clarion
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
       
    Cornet, 5 ranks
305
       
    Mixture, 3 ranks
183
       
8
  Trumpet
61
       
4
  Clarion
61
       

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
    Chancel Division       Gallery Division  
16
  Bourdon
61
16
  Bourdon
61
8
  Diapason
61
8
  Diapason
61
8
  Gedackt
61
8
  Gedackt
61
8
  Salicional
61
8
  Salicional
61
8
  Quintaton
61
8
  Vox Celestes
61
4
  Flute
61
8
  Aeoline
61
4
  Octave
61
4
  Violin
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
    Cornet, 3 ranks
183
    Cornet, 3 ranks
183
8
  Cornopean
61
16
  Fagotta
61
8
  Oboe
61
8
  Cornopean
61
    Tremolo  
8
  Oboe
61
       
    Tremolo          
               
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
    Chancel Division       Gallery Division  
8
  Diapason
61
8
  Diapason
61
8
  Concert Flute
61
8
  Melodia
61
8
  Dulciana
61
8
  Dulcet
61
8
  Gamba
61
8
  Unda Maris
61
4
  Flute
61
4
  Flute
61
4
  Principal
61
2
  Piccolo
61
2
  Piccolo
61
8
  Clarinet
61
16
  Euphone
61
    Tremolo  
8
  Clarinet
61
       
               
Solo Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed with Gallery Swell
            Gallery Division  
       
8
  Stentorphone [7" w.p.]
61
       
8
  Philomela [7" w.p.]
61
       
4
  Flute [7" w.p.]
61
       
8
  Tuba [15" w.p.]
61
               
Echo Organ – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Quintadena
61
       
8
  Vox Humana
61
       
               
Pedal Organ – 30 notes
    Chancel Division       Gallery Division  
32
  Contra Bass [resultant]
16
  Diapason
30
16
  Diapason
30
16
  Bourdon
30
16
  Gamba
30
16
  Gedackt
30
16
  Bourdon
30
10 2/3
  Quinte
30
8
  Flute
30
8
  Octave
30
8
  Octave
30
       
8
  Cello
30
       
16
  Trombone
30
       
               
Couplers
    Great to Pedal       Swell to Choir  
    Great to Swell       Solo to Choir  
    Swell to Pedal       Choir Gallery Off  
    Solo to Pedal       Choir Chancel Off  
    Swell to Great       Chancel Swell to Solo  
    Choir to Great 16', 8'       Gallery Swell to Solo  
    Solo to Great 16', 8', 4'       Chancel Great to Solo  
    Echo On–Great Off       Gallery Great to Solo  
    Great Chancel On–Gallery Off   Swell to Swell 16', 4'  
    Great to Swell       Solo to Solo 16', 4', Off  
    Swell Gallery Off      
    Swell Chancel Off          
           
  1898 photo of Hilborne L. Roosevelt Organ, Op. 36 (1876) at Grace Church - New York City
  Roosevelt Organ in Chancel (1898)
  Hilborne L. Roosevelt console (1878) for Henry Erben organ ( ) in Grace Church, New York City (Grace Church Archives)
  Roosevelt Console in Gallery
Hilborne L. Roosevelt
New York City – Opus 36 (1876)
Tracker-pneumatic and Electro-pneumatic action
3 manuals, 45 stops, 54 ranks



The original gallery organ and console by Henry Erben were still in use when in 1878 Hilborne L. Roosevelt of New York City completed a new organ in the chancel. A choir had been installed there to replace the solo quartette and choir which had sung for many years from the gallery. A chamber (still in use) was built for the chancel organ in the angle formed by the east wall of the south transept and the chancel wall. The chamber is actually outside the church walls and the organ spoke through what had been outside windows.

Hilborne L. Roosevelt Organ, Op. 36 (1876) in Grace Church - New York City (1888 Hilborne L. Roosevelt Catalog)  
Drawing showing the location of chancel, echo and gallery divisions
 
An echo organ, also by Roosevelt, was situated in the ceiling over the intersection of the nave and transepts; it consisted of two stops brought from the Machinery Hall of the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876: a Vox Humana and Quintadena.

Roosevelt connected the 1830 Henry Erben organ, moved to the present church in 1846, to the chancel console with an electric cable.

An exhibition of the new organ took place on May 22, 1878. Performers included Samuel. P. Warren (Grace Church), Henry Carter (Trinity Church), George W. Morgan (Brooklyn Tabernacle), Dudley Buck (Holy Trinity, Brooklyn), George W. Warren (St. Thomas Church) and several vocalists.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
16
  Open Diapason
61
2 2/3
  Twelfth
61
8
  Open Diapason
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
8
  Violin Diapason
61
    Grand Cornet, 5 ranks
305
8
  Double Flute
61
 
  Mixture, 4 ranks
244
8
  Melodia
61
16
  Trumpet
61
4
  Principal
61
8
  Trumpet
61
4
  Wald Flute
61
4
  Clarion
61

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon
61
4
  Harmonic Flute
61
8
  Open Diapason
61
2
  Flageolet
61
8
  Stopped Diapason
61
    Cornet, 3 and 4 ranks
232?
8
  Salicional
61
16
  Contra Fagotto
61
8
  Quintaton
61
8
  Cornopean
61
4
  Principal
61
8
  Oboe
61
               
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Open Diapason
61
4
  Rohr Flute
61
8
  Concert Flute
61
2
  Piccolo
61
8
  Gamba
61
16
  Euphone [free-reed]
61
8
  Dulciana
61
8
  Clarinet
61
4
  Violina
61
       
               
Echo Organ – 61 notes, enclosed [above ceiling, connected electrically]
8
  Quintadena
61
       
8
  Vox Humana
61
       
               
Pedal Organ – 30 notes
32
  Contra Bass [resultant]
8
  Violoncello
30
16
  Open Diapason
30
8
  Flute
30
16
  Bourdon
30
4
  Super Octave
30
16
  Gamba
30
16
  Trombone
30
               
Couplers
    Swell to Great       Swell to Pedal  
    Swell to Choir       Great to Pedal  
    Great to Choir       Choir to Pedal  
               
Mechanical Accessories
    Gallery Organ Ventil   Echo Ventil
    Gallery Great Ventil   Echo Tremulant
    Gallery Swell Ventil   Chancel Bellows Signal
    Gallery Choir Ventil   Gallery Bellows Signal
               
Pedal Movements
    Six Roosevelt Adjustable Combination Pedals, each capable of affecting any or all stops belonging to the Chancel Organ:
    1. Full Organ          
    2. Full Great          
    3. Mezzo Great          
    4. Piano Great          
    5. Full Swell          
    6. Solo Choir          
    Pedal Pedal – to release the above.      
    Swell Tremulant          
    Great to Pedal Reversible Coupler
    Balanced Swell Pedal, controlling both Chancel and Gallery Swell-boxes
           
  Henry Erben organ (1830) at Grace Church - New York City (from newspaper clipping)
Organ in the original church on Broadway at Rector Street:

Henry Erben
New York City (1830); alt.
Mechanical key and stop action
3 manuals, 27 stops, 30 ranks



The 1830 Erben organ was originally built for Grace Church's previous building on Broadway near Rector Street. It was moved to the new church (built in 1845-46) at Broadway and Tenth Street, where it was installed behind a new gothic case designed by architect James Renwick, Jr. Although the original stoplist of the Erben organ has not been found, it is known that alterations were made between 1850-60, including a new pedalboard. The Erben organ was electrically connected to the 1876 Roosevelt in the chancel, and remained in the church until it was dismantled in 1902 and replaced by a new Ernest M. Skinner organ. Following is the specification of the Erben when it was connected to the Roosevelt organ in 1876.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 58 notes [CC to a3]
8
  Open Diapason
58
2
  Fifteenth
58
8
  Stopt Diapason
58
   
Cornet (treble), 3 ranks
}
Sesquialtera (bass), 3 ranks
}
174
8
  Keraulophon
58
   
4
  Principal
58
8
  Trumpet
58
2 2/3
  Twelfth
58
4
  Clarion
58

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 46 notes [C to a3], enclosed
16
  Double Diapason
46
4
  Principal
46
8
  Open Diapason
46
    Cornet, 3 ranks
138
8
  Stopt Diapason
46
8
  Trumpet
46
8
  Dulciana
46
4
  Oboe
46
               
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 58 notes [CC to a3]
8
  Stopt Diapason
58
4
  Flute
58
8
  Dulciana
58
2
  Fifteenth
58
8
  Viol d'Amour
58
8
  Cremona
58
4
  Principal
58
       
               
Pedal Organ – 29 notes [CCC to E]
16
  Open Diapason
29
       
16
  Bell Gamba
29
       
               
Mechanicals (suggested)
    Great to Pedal   Choir to Great
    Swell to Pedal   Swell to Choir
    Choir to Pedal    
    Swell to Great   Bellows Signal
           
Organ in original church on Broadway, south of Rector Street:

John Geib & Son
New York City (1811)
Mechanical action


The first organ in Grace Church was built by John Geib. Specifications of this organ have not yet been located.
           
Sources:
     Aeolian-Skinner Archives web site: http://aeolian-skinner.110mb.com/
     Allen, Patrick. "The Organs of Grace Church," pub. Grace Church web site.
     "The Bells of Grace Church in New York," from the Church Year Book. New York: Grace Church, 1925.
     The Churchman (Sep. 26, 1903). Specifications of Ernest M. Skinner Organ (1903). Courtesy Grace Church Archives.
     Episcopal Diocese of New York Archives; Wayne H. Kempton, Archivist.
     "The Exhibition of the New Organ, and Its Connections, May 22, 1878." Organ Recital Program. Courtesy Jonathan Bowen.
     "Grace Church Beautified. To-Day's Grand Organ Recital," The New York Times (May 22, 1878).
     "Grace Church's Fifty Years. Its Semi-Centennial Milepost Reached Yesterday," The New York Times (Mar. 8, 1896).
     Grace Church website: http://www.gracechurchnyc.org
     Holden, Dorothy. The Life and Work of Ernest M. Skinner. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1987.
     Kinzey, Allen, and Sand Lawn, comps. E.M. Skinner/Aeolian-Skinner Opus List. New Rev. Ed. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1997.
     List, Kenneth. Specifications of Schlicker organ (1961).
     Nelson, George. Organs in the United States and Canada Database. Seattle, Wash.
     New York Architecture Images web site: http://www.nyc-architecture.com
     Ogasapian, John. Organ Building in New York City: 1700-1900. Braintree: The Organ Literature Foundation, 1977.
     "Hilborne L. Roosevelt, Manufacturer of Church, Chapel, Concert and Chamber Organs," catalog pub. by Roosevelt Organ Works (Dec. 1888); republished by The Organ Literature Foundation (Braintree, Mass., 1978). Courtesy Sand Lawn and David Scribner.
     Taylor & Boody Organbuilders web site: http://www.taylorandboody.com
     Trupiano, Larry. Memoradum of an Agreement (April 1, 1902) between Grace Church and Ernest M. Skinner for a new gallery Solo division.

Illustrations:
     Davis, Alexander Jackson. 1830 drawing of original Grace Church.
     eBay.com. 1910 postcard of Grace Church.
     Episcopal Diocese of New York Archives. 1898 photo of Hilborne L. Roosevelt Organ, Op. 36 (1876).
     Grace Church Archives. Gallery Console of Hilborne L. Roosevelt Organ, Op. 36 (1876); Chancel Console of Ernest M. Skinner Organ (1903); Chancel Console of Skinner Organ, Op. 201 (1912); Chancel Console of Skinner Organ, Op. 707 (1928). Courtesy Patrick Allen.
     Grace Episcopal Church web site: exterior.
     Lawson, Robbie. Interior showing Taylor & Boody cases; console.
     Lawson, Steven E. Console of Skinner organ, Op. 707 (1928).
     Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online. Photos of Chancel and Gallery organ cases (after 1933).
     Rust, John. Schlicker Organ (1961) and church interior.
     Taylor & Boody Organbuilders web site. Drawing of proposed Taylor & Boody organ, Op. 65.