Church of St. Ann & the Holy Trinity - Brooklyn Heights, New York (Photo: Steven E. Lawson)
Click on images to enlarge
Church of St. Ann & the Holy Trinity
(Episcopal)

157 Montague Street at Clinton Street
Brooklyn Heights, N.Y. 11201
http://www.saintannandtheholytrinity.org/


Organ Specifications:
V/72 Skinner Organ Company, Op. 524 (1925), rev.
IV/64 Skinner Organ Company, Op. 524 (1925)
IV/– Skinner Organ Company, Op. 142 (1909) – console
III/50 George S. Hutchings Co., Op. 474 (1899)
III/45 Hilborne L. Roosevelt, Op. 2 (1873)
III/40 William A. Johnson (1870)
III/32 Henry Crabbe (1847)


1860 Watercolor by Minard Lafever showing design of Henry Crabb Organ Case at Holy Trinity Episcopal Church - Brooklyn Heights, New York
Watercolor by Minard Lafever
The Protestant Episcopal Church of the Holy Trinity in Brooklyn Heights was designed by Minard Lafever (1798-1854) and completed in 1848. Lafever's design is considered one of the finest masterpieces of the Gothic Revival style in America. The church's elaborate interior features a soaring nave highlighted by lierne vaulting which employs wood-frame plaster vaults. More than 7000 square feet of stained glass by William Jay Bolton depict the "Jesse Tree" of Christ’s ancestry; this astounding collection is perhaps the most significant early American stained glass installation. Bolton’s organ loft window is on permanent exhibition in the American Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

A clash between the bishop and rival factions within the parish led to the closure and dissolution, in 1959, of Holy Trinity Church. In 1969, St. Ann's Church, faced with a crumbling building only a few blocks away, moved into the former Holy Trinity Church, resulting in the present name of St. Ann and the Holy Trinity. At this time, the E.M. Skinner organ was modified, and a new five-manual console was installed with Virgil Fox as the consultant.

In 1979, the New York Landmarks Conservancy intervened to save the aging church and stained glass, and in 1983 the St. Ann Center for Restoration and the Arts was founded. The center’s record of success included the restoration of the chancel window, 64 stained glass windows by William Bolton in the nave (considered the earliest of their type in America), and the exterior fence. With support from World Monuments Fund, a conditions survey was carried out and matching funds were made available from the New York State Bond Act to restore the roof.

Today the church is open for services and restoration efforts are moving ahead. St Ann's is also seeking to make the property more self-sustaining through the sensitive development of its adjacent Parish Hall.
           
Church of St. Ann & the Holy Trinity - Brooklyn Heights, New York Church of St. Ann & the Holy Trinity - Brooklyn Heights, New York (Photo: Steven E. Lawson)
           
 

Keats Console (1970) for E.M. Skinner Organ, Op. 524 (1925) - Church of St. Ann & the Holy Trinity - Brooklyn Heights, New York

Skinner Organ Company
Boston, Mass. – Opus 524 (1925); rev. (1968)
Electro-pneumatic action
5 manuals, 73 stops, 72 ranks








In 1968, the Skinner organ was altered and enlarged by Tom Farrell of Brooklyn. A new five-manual drawknob console was built by the Keates-Geissler Pipe Organ Company of Acton, Ontario, Canada, and installed in 1970. The Keates console had drawknobs that were engraved with an Old English font, and included preparations for many additions. Since that time, the organ has undergone extensive physical and tonal restorative work as funding allowed. Stops that had been loudened were returned to their original volume. In 2003, the Solo division was completely restored and the Tuba Mirabilis, which had been moved to a horizontal position atop the Solo box, was repaired and returned to its original location. The console was rebuilt by John Randolph in 2005, and the Swell reeds were restored by Chris Broome in 2010.

The Organ Historical Society awarded its distinguished Historical Citation No. 240 in recognition of the Skinner Organ as an outstanding example of organbuilding and worthy of preservation.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
16
  Double Open Diapason
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
16
  Bourdon
61
  Harmonics II ranks 1
122
8
  1st Open Diapason
61
 
  Mixture IV ranks
244
8
  2nd Open Diapason
61
8
  Trumpet
61
8
  Claribel Flute
61
  Chimes
EC
8
  Wald Flute
61
    Great Sub  
8
  Viola Dolce
61
 
  Great Super  
8
  Erzahler
61
 
  Great Melody  
4
  Octave
61
 
  Unison Off  
4
  Flute
61
       

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon
73
  Cornet V ranks
365
8
  Diapason
73
 
  Mixture V ranks
365
8
  Gedeckt
73
16
  Posaune 4
73
8
  Hohl Flute
73
8
  Cornopean 4
73
8
  Quintadena 2
73
8
  Corno d'Amore
73
8
  Salicional
73
8
  Vox Humana
61
8
  Voix Celeste
73
4
  Clarion 4
73
8
  Flauto Dolce
73
  Tremolo  
8
  Flute Celeste [TC]
61
 
  Swell Sub  
4
  Octave 3
73
    Swell Super  
4
  Flute Triangulaire
73
 
  Swell Melody  
4
  Gemshorn
73
 
  Unison Off  
2
  Flautino
61
       

     

     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Gamba
73
8
  English Horn
73
8
  Diapason
73
8
  Clarinet
73
8
  Concert Flute
73
 
Tremolo
 
8
  Dulciana
73
 
 
Harp [not working]
61 bars
8
  Unda Maris [TC]
61
 
  Celesta
8
  Viola d'Amour
73
 
  Choir Sub  
4
  Flute
73
 
  Choir Super  
2 2/3
  Nasard
61
 
  Choir Melody  
2
  Octavin 5
61
    Unison Off  
1 3/5
  Tierce
61
       

     

     
Solo Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Gross Gedackt
73
  Tremolo

8
  Gross Gamba
73
    Solo Sub  
8
  Gamba Celeste
73
  
  Solo Super  
4
  Orchestral Flute
73
    Solo Melody  
8
  French Horn
73
    Unison Off  
8
  Tuba Mirabilis
73
       

     

 

     
Echo Organ (Manual V) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Chimney Flute
73

 
Chimes
20 tubes
8
  Muted Viole
73

  Echo Sub  
4
  Silverette
73

  Echo Super  
8
  Vox Humana
61

  Unison Off  
    Tremolo          

             
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
32
  Bourdon [unit]
68
8
  Gedeckt
16
  Diapason [unit]
44
8
  Still Gedeckt
SW
16
  Violone [unit]
44
4
  Stopped Flute
16
  Bourdon
32
  Bombarde [unit]
56
16
  Echo Bourdon
SW
16
  Trombone
16
  Gamba
CH
16
  Posaune
SW
10 2/3
  Quint
8
  Tromba
8
  Octave
8
  Tuba Mirabilis
SO
8
  Cello
 
  Chimes 
EC

     

     
Footnotes:
1.
  Originally from the E.M. Skinner organ (Opus 280, 1917) in Brick Presbyterian Church, Manhattan.
2.
  This stop was removed in the 1960s, and replaced with the 4' Octave. The pipes are currently stored under the gallery floor, and must be completely rebuilt to be usable.
3.
  This is a Henry Wills stop, added in the 1960s. At the same time, the 8' Diapason and 2' Flautino were loudened. The 2' was renamed.
4.
  These Swell reed stops were loudened in the 1960s. At the same time, their character was changed.
5.
  Originally a double-length Piccolo, these pipes were cut in half in the 1960s and renamed.

  It should be noted that, other than in the restored Solo Division, every rank in the organ has isolated dead notes and/or damaged pipes.

     
notes by Gregory Eaton, 2005
           
 

E.M. Skinner Organ, Op. 524 (1925) - Church of St. Ann & the Holy Trinity - Brooklyn Heights, New York

 
Church of the Holy Trinity (c.1925)
Skinner Organ Company
Boston, Mass. – Opus 524 (1925)
Electro-pneumatic action
4 manuals, 69 stops, 64 ranks





In the 1920s, a campaign was launched to raise a fund of $50,000 to replace the 1899 Geo. S. Hutchings organ. The Diapason (May? 1925, p.20) reported: "Late in March [1925], when the subscriptions had reached $37,000, "a letter was received by the heirs of the late Charles J. Peabody, donor of the present organ, offering to the church an organ to cost approximately $50,000, provided an equal sum be raised for its permanent maintenance, and that it be played at all times by a competent organist."

The Skinner Organ Company Contract (Mar. 13, 1925), drawn up by C.W. Cameron for Skinner and signed by George Foster Peabody, the donor, stated that the organ would cost $47,000. Skinner did not provide an organ case or front display pipes. The contract specifications had an error in that the Swell "Mixture, V ranks" was shown to have 365 pipes; in fact, this cornet mixture had the usual 305 pipes but the typo was repeated in many publications. Skinner's Op. 524 was said to be the first instrument in the United States to have "melody-couplers" which are extant today. Interestingly, the 32' reed with metal resonators that was scheduled for the church went instead for a school, and the church got the reed with wooden resonators that was to go to the school; this stop has a very full sound and is much larger in scale than other Skinner 32' reeds of that era.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
16
  Diapason
61
8
  Erzahler
61
16
  Bourdon
61
4
  Octave
61
8
  First Diapason
61
4
  Flute
61
8
  Second Diapason
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
8
  Claribel Flute
61
  Mixture IV ranks
244
8
  Wald Flute
61
8
  Trumpet
61
8
  Viola Dolce
61
 
 
Chimes
EC

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon
73
4
  Gemshorn
73
8
  Diapason
73
2
  Flautina
61
8
  Gedeckt
73
    Mixture V ranks
305
8
  Hohl Flute
73
16
  Posaune
73
8
  Quintadena
73
8
  Cornopean
73
8
  Salicional
73
8
  Corno d'Amore
73
8
  Voix Celeste
73
4
  Clarion
73
8
  Flauto Dolce
73
8
  Vox Humana
61
8
  Flute Celeste [TC]
61
  Tremolo  
4
  Flute Triangulaire
73
       

     

     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Gamba
73
2
  Piccolo
61
8
  Diapason
73
1 3/5
  Tierce
61
8
  Concert Flute
73
16
  English Horn
73
8
  Dulciana
73
8
  Clarinet
73
8
  Unda Maris [TC]
61
  Tremolo  
8
  Viola d'Amour
73
 
 
Harp *
61 bars
4
  Flute
73
 
  Celesta *
2 2/3
  Nazard
61
* Dampers On & Off buttons in right keycheek

     

     
Solo and Echo Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Gross Gedeckt
73
8
  Chimney Flute

73

8
  Gross Gamba
73
8
  Muted Viol
73
8
  Gamba Celeste
73
4
  Silverette
73
4
  Orchestral Flute
73
8
  Vox Humana
61
8
  Tuba Mirabilis [20" w.p.]
73
    Tremolo [both]  
8
  French Horn
73
   
Chimes
20 tubes

     

 

     
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
32
  Bourdon [unit]
68
8
  Flute
16
  Diapason [unit]
44
8
  Still Gedeckt
SW
16
  Violone [unit]
44
4
  Stopped Flute
16
  Bourdon
32
  Bombarde [unit]
56
16
  Echo Bourdon
SW
16
  Trombone
16
  Gamba
CH
16
  Posaune
SW
10 2/3
  Quint
8
  Tromba
8
  Octave
  Chimes
EC
               
Couplers
    Great to Pedal 8'   Solo to Choir 8'
    Swell to Pedal 8', 4'   Great 16', 4'
    Choir to Pedal 8', 4'   Swell 16', 4', Unison Cancel +
    Solo to Pedal 8', 4'   Choir 16', 4', Unison Cancel +
    Swell to Great 16', 8', 4'   Solo 16', 4', Unison Cancel +
    Choir to Great 16', 8', 4'   Melody to Swell 4'
    Solo to Great 16', 8', 4'   Melody to Great 4'
    Swell to Choir 16', 8', 4'   Melody to Choir 4'
           
+ On & Off buttons in left keycheeks
Adjustable Combinations
   
Great Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (thumb) Ped. Combs. to Man. On/Off
Swell Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb) Ped. Combs. to Man. On/Off
Choir Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (thumb) Ped. Combs. to Man. On/Off
Solo and Echo Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (thumb)  
Pedal Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (thumb)  
General Pistons 1-2-3-4-5 (thumb & toe)  
  General Cancel  
  Tremolo Cancel to Swell, Choir and Solo
               
Reversibles
    Solo to Pedal (thumb)   Great to Pedal (thumb)
    Swell to Pedal (thumb)   Choir to Pedal (thumb)
    Swell to Pedal 4' (thumb)    
               
Mechanicals
    Swell Expression Pedal
    Choir Expression Pedal
    Solo and Echo Expression Pedal
    Crescendo Pedal, with Indicator
    Sforzando Pedal, with Indicator, reversible by piston or pedal
    All Swells to Swell Expression Pedal, with Indicator
    Manuals 4' couplers on and off by pedal, with Indicator
    Manuals 16' couplers on and off by pedal, with Indicator
    Manuals 16' stops on and off by pedal, with Indicator
    Pedal 32' stops on and off by pedal
         
Skinner Organ Company
Boston, Mass. – Opus 142 (1909)
Electro-pneumatic action
4 manual console


In 1909, a four-manual console was installed at the opposite end of the church by Ernest M. Skinner as his Opus 142.
           
George S. Hutchings Co.
Boston, Mass. – Opus 474 (1899)
Tubular or Electro-pneumatic action
3 manuals, 43 stops, 50 ranks, 2,669 pipes



In 1899, a new organ was built by George S. Hutchings of Boston to replace the 1873 instrument (Op. 2) by Hilborne L. Roosevelt. Located in the gallery, the Hutchings organ had a detached and extended key desk, and used tubular or electro-pneumatic action. Dudley Buck was the organist when this organ was installed. The organ was the gift of Charles J. Peabody.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
16
  Open Diapason
61
4
  Octave
61
8
  First Open Diapason
61
4
  Hohl Flute
61
8
  Second Open Diapason
61
2 2/3
  Octave Quinte
61
8
  Viola d'Amour
61
2
  Super Octave
61
8
  Gross Gamba
61
    Mixture IV ranks
244
8
  Gross Flute
61
8
  Trumpet
61
               
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon Bass
12
4
  Flute Harmonique
61
16
  Bourdon Treble [TC]
49
2
  Flageolet
61
8
  Open Diapason
61
    Dolce Cornet V ranks
305
8
  Salicional
61
16
  Contra Fagotto
61
8
  Aeoline
61
8
  Cornopean
61
8
  Stopped Diapason
61
8
  Oboe
61
8
  Spitz Floete
61
8
  Vox Humana
61
4
  Gemshorn
61
       
               
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes
16
  Contra Gamba [stopped bass]
61
4
  Fugara
61
8
  Open Diapason
61
4
  Flute d'Amour
61
8
  Dolce
61
2
  Piccolo Harmonique
61
8
  Concert Flute
61
8
  Clarinet
61
               
Pedal Organ – 30 notes
16
  Open Diapason
30
8
  Gedeckt
30
16
  Violone
30
10 2/3
  Quinte
30
16
  Bourdon
30
16
  Trombone
30
8
  Floete
30
8
  Tromba
30
8
  Violoncello
30
       
               
Couplers
    Great to Pedal   Choir to Great 16', 8'
    Swell to Pedal   Great to Swell
    Choir to Pedal   Swell to Choir
    Swell to Great 16', 8', 4'    
               
Adjustable Combination Pistons
   
Swell Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5 (thumb)
Great Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5 (thumb)
Choir Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4 (thumb)
  General Release (thumb)
               
Pedal Movements
    Great to Pedal Reversible   Balanced Swell Pedal  
    Full Organ, controlling entire organ   Balanced Crescendo Pedal  
    Swell Tremolo          
           
  Console of Hilborne Roosevelt Organ, Opus 3 (1873) at Holy Trinity Episcopal Church - Brooklyn Heights, NY
Hilborne L. Roosevelt
New York City – Opus 2 (1873)
Mechanical action
3 manuals, 35 stops, 45 ranks






Scarcely three years after William A. Johnson rebuilt the organ in Holy Trinity Church, the instrument was radically rebuilt by Hilborne L. Roosevelt, at the time a fledgling organbuilder in New York City. Various sources list this project as Mr. Roosevelt's Op. 2 or Op. 3. The rebuilt organ was exhibited on Tuesday evening, Dec. 14, 1875, with a program by Mr. S. B. Whitely and Mr. Samuel P. Warren, organists of Holy Trinity, and Mr. George W. Morgan, organist of the Brooklyn Tabernacle, assisted by a male chorus of sixteen voices. Click here to view the program.
"The improvements made by Mr. Roosevelt are very extensive, consisting of an entire remodelling of the Organ, from a so-called G. Organ, (compass GGG, to F.) to the modern compass (CCC, to A.). Each stop in the Swell being carried throughout. The Key-board, Action, Couplers, Combination Pedals, Swell-box, Swell Sound-board, etc., are entirely new, whilst many defects have been remedied all thoughout the Organ. The thorough revoicing also of each Stop has greatly enhanced its tone. Great credit is due to Mr. Roosevelt for accomplishing such desirable results.
     "The specification and supervision of the alterations was made by the Organist, Mr. S. B. Whiteley."
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 58 notes
8
  Open Diapason
58
2 2/3
  Twelfth
58
8
  Stop Diapason
58
2
  Fifteenth
58
8
  Gamba
58
  Sesquialtera, 3 ranks
174
4
  Principal
58
    Mixture, 5 ranks
290
4
  Flute, Harmonic
58
8
  Trumpet
58
               
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 58 notes, enclosed
16
  Double Diapason
58
2
  Fifteenth
58
8
  Open Diapason
58
    Cornet, 5 ranks
290
8
  Stop Diapason
58
8
  Oboe
58
8
  Flute à Cheminée
58
8
  Trumpet
58
8
  Salicional
58
8
  Vox Humana
58
8
  Quintadena
58
    Tremolo  
4
  Principal
58
       
               
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 58 notes
8
  Open Diapason
58
4
  Flute
58
8
  Stop Diapason
58
4
  Principal
58
8
  Clarabella
58
2
  Fifteenth
58
8
  Violoncello
58
8
  Cremorne
58
8
  Keraulophon
58
       
               
Pedal Organ – 25 notes
16
  Open Diapason
25
8
  Violoncello
25
16
  Bourdon
25
16
  Trombone
25
               
Couplers
    Swell to Great       Octave Cp. Swell to Great
    Great to Pedal       Swell to Choir  
    Swell to Pedal          
               
Combination Pedals
    Swell Forte       Great Forte  
    Swell Piano       Great Piano  
           
William A. Johnson
Westfield, Mass. (1870)
Mechanical action
3 manuals, 33 stops, 40 ranks



The 1847 Henry Crabbe organ was rebuilt in 1869-70 by William A. Johnson, the noted organbuilder of Westfield, Mass. Johnson so admired Crabbe's work that he incorporated much of it into the rebuilt organ. On February 28, 1870, the organ was rededicated by George W. Warren (1828-1902), organist of the church, who shared the program with vocal soloists, choirs and harp. The program included specifications of the Henry Crabbe organ as of 1860 (the year Mr. Warren commenced as organist) and the 1870 organ as rebuilt by William A. Johnson. Click here to view the program.

The following note was printed under the 1860 specification:
Built by HENRY CRABBE, Esq., Flatbush, L.I. 1847 (or thereabouts). The Diapasons and Mixtures, for which Mr. Crabbe has always been justly celebrated (including the very fine Pedal Diapason) remain exactly as built by him.

Under the 1870 specification was noted:

All the Improvements (with scarce an exception) by William A. Johnson, Esq., of Westfield, Mass. Hydraulic Engine of Forester's [sic] Patent, from Forrester & Smith, Bridgeport, Conn.
               
Great Organ
8
  Open Diapason  
3
  Twelfth  
8
  Viole di gamba [1865]  
2
  Fifteenth  
8
  { Clarabella [1865]       Sesquialtera [3 ranks]  
8
  { Stop Bass       Mixture [4 ranks]  
4
  Principal  
8
  Trumpet, New [1870]  
4
  Flute Harmonique [1870]          
               
Swell Organ – enclosed
16
  Bourdon  
2
  Fifteenth  
8
  Open Diapason       Cornet [3 ranks]  
8
  Salicional [1870]  
8
  Trumpet, New [1863]  
8
  Quintadina [sic] [1870]  
8
  Hautboy, New [1870]  
8
  Flute a Cheminee [1870]  
8
  Vox Humana [1870]  
4
  Principal       Tremolo [1870]  
               
Choir Organ
8
  { Open Diapason  
8
  Wald Flute [1863] *  
8
  { Open Wood Bass  
4
  Principal  
8
  Stop Diapason  
2
  Fifteenth  
8
  Clarabella  
8
  Cremona [Revoiced 1863]  
8
  Keraulophon [1865]      
* more probably 4' pitch
               
Pedal Organ
16
  Open Diapason  
8
  Violoncello [1863]  
16
  Bourdon  
16
  Trombone [1870]  
               
Copulas, etc.
    Great and Swell      
    Great and Swell Octaves [1863]      
    Choir and Swell      
    Pedals and Great      
    Pedals and Choir        
    Tremolo [1863]        
    Engine [1869]        
           
 

Holy Trinity Episcopal Church - Brooklyn Heights, New York (ARCHITECTUAL INSTRUCTOR by Minard Lafever)

 
Iinterior showing Crabbe Organ (1856)
Henry Crabbe
Flatbush, L.I. (1847)
Mechanical action
3 manuals, 25 stops, 32 ranks




The original organ for the Church of the Holy Trinity was built by Henry Crabb[e] (1793-1872) of Flatbush, L.I. (incorporated into Brooklyn in 1894). Henry Crabbe, a native of Devonshire, England, immigrated to the U.S. in 1837, where he worked with Firth & Hall of New York City from 1837-1838 before establishing his own firm in Flatbush. Crabbe's organ for Holy Trinity was probably his largest in America, having three manuals and twenty-five stops. This organ had a "G-compass" with a manual range of GGG to F, and was contained in a Gothic case designed by architect Minard Lafever.
               
Great Organ
8
  Open Diapason  
2
  Fifteenth  
8
  Stop Diapason       Sesquialtera [3 ranks]  
4
  Principal  
  Mixture [4 ranks]  
3
  Twelfth  
8
  Trumpet  
               
Swell Organ – enclosed
16
  Bourdon  
2
  Fifteenth  
8
  Open Diapason       Cornet [3 ranks]  
8
  Stop Diapason  
8
  Trumpet  
4
  Principal  
8
  Hautboy  
3
  Twelfth          
               
Choir Organ
8
  { Open Diapason  
8
  Dulcianna [sic]  
8
  { Open Wood Bass  
4
  Principal  
8
  Stop Diapason  
2
  Fifteenth  
8
  Clarabella  
8
  Cremona  
               
Pedal Organ
16
  Open Diapason          
               
Couplers
    Pedals and Great        
    Pedals and Choir        
    Great and Swell        
    Great and Choir        
    Choir and Swell        
           
Sources:
     Brown, Roscoe C. E. Church of the Holy Trinity Brooklyn Heights in the City of New York 1847-1922. New York: The Dunlap Press, Inc., 1922.
     DuBois, W.E.B. "In the Crucible." www.anglocatholicsocialism.org/crucible.html
     Eaton, Gregory. Factory Specification (Mar. 13, 1925) of Skinner Organ Company organ, Op. 524.
     Eaton, Gregory. Specification of George S. Hutchings Organ, Op. 474 (1899).
     "Exhibition of the Organ of the Church of the Holy Trinity, Brooklyn, Tuesday Evening, Dec. 14th, 1875," pub. by Holy Trinity Church, Brooklyn. Specification of Roosevelt Organ, Op. 3 (1873). Courtesy James Lewis.
     Fox, David H. A Guide to North American Organbuilders (Rev. ed.).Richmond: Organ Historical Society, 1997.
     "Great Organ Planned for Brooklyn Church," The Diapason (May? 1925).
     Kinzey, Allen, and Sand Lawn, comps. E.M. Skinner/Aeolian-Skinner Opus List. New Rev. Ed. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1997.
     Kinzey, Allen. Electronic mail (Dec. 15, 2009) regarding pipecount of the Swell Mixture in Skinner Organ, Op. 524 (1925).
     Ochse, Orpha. The History of the Organ in the United States. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975.
     Ogasapian, John. Organ Building in New York City: 1700-1900. Braintree: The Organ Literature Foundation, 1977.
     Scharpenger, Charles. Console layout of Skinner Organ Company organ, Op. 524 (1925).
     Speller, John. "Henry Crabb: An Ancient Tradition of Organbuilding Moves from Devonshire to New York," The Tracker (Vol. 43, No. 3, 1999):13-14.
     Stiles, Henry Reed. History of the City of Brooklyn: Including the Old Town and Village of Brooklyn, the Town of Bushwick, and the Village and City of Williamsburgh. Brooklyn: pub. by subscription, 1863.
     "Stop, Open and Reed – a Periodical Presentation of Pipe Organ Progress". Boston: Skinner Organ Company, 1922-1927.
     Trupiano, Larry. William A. Johnson Organ Rededication Program (Feb. 28, 1870).

Illustrations:
     Lawson, Steven E. Exterior; interior; Skinner organ case.
     Lafever, Minard. Drawing of Interior. Architectural Instructor. New York: Putnam, 1856. Courtesy Larry Trupiano.
     "Stop, Open and Reed – a Periodical Presentation of Pipe Organ Progress." Skinner organ case.
     Trupiano, Larry. Console of Hilborne L. Roosevelt Organ, Op. 2 (1873).
     Trupiano, Larry. Watercolor (1860) of Minard Lefever's design for the Henry Crabbe organ case.